You have asked me, Lucilius, why, if a Providence rules the world, it still happens that many evils befall good men. This would be more fittingly answered in a coherent work designed to prove that a Providence does preside over the universe, and that God concerns himself with us. But since it is your wish that a part be severed from the whole, and that I refute a single objection while the main question is left untouched, I shall do so; the task is not difficult, - I shall be pleading the cause of the gods.
Attached to a suction pump Up to 15 weeks' gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are the most common surgical methods of induced abortion. These techniques differ in the mechanism used to apply suction, in how early in pregnancy they can be used, and in whether cervical dilation is necessary.
MVA, also known as "mini-suction" and " menstrual extraction ", can be used in very early pregnancy, and does not require cervical dilation. Curettage refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette.
After the 16th week of gestation, abortions can also be induced by intact dilation and extraction IDX also called intrauterine cranial decompressionwhich requires surgical decompression of the fetus's head before evacuation.
IDX is sometimes called " partial-birth abortion ", which has been federally banned in the United States. In the third trimester of pregnancy, induced abortion may be performed surgically by intact dilation and extraction or by hysterotomy.
Hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section and is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy. This procedure may be performed from 13 weeks gestation to the third trimester.
For this reason, labor induced abortion is legally risky in the U. The historian of medicine John Riddle has spoken of the "broken chain of knowledge," : And sometimes their fumbling attempts to recover the knowledge can be disastrous.
For example, in one woman in Colorado died and another was seriously injured when they attempted to procure an abortion by taking pennyroyal oil. Abortion is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. The degree of force, if severe, can cause serious internal injuries without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage.
These and other methods to terminate pregnancy may be called "induced miscarriage". Such methods are rarely used in countries where surgical abortion is legal and available. The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortions as those performed by unskilled individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities.
Complications, which are rare, can include uterine perforationpelvic infectionand retained products of conception requiring a second procedure to evacuate. Second-trimester abortions are generally well-tolerated. Referring to the U. In the prominent professor of obstetrics and gynecology Frederick J.
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