As readers of this journal will recognise, several national and regional networks have come into existence e. In order to stimulate the search for excellence in academic research, TRI has created an annual award for the best PhD thesis that has been successfully defended at a university.
Contact The Inevitable Practice of the Office of the Prosecutor It was not clear in how the court would function precisely because of the multitude of challenges it faced. Eleven years later only some of those questions have been resolved.
We may be seeing the start of that in Kenya today, where the electoral violence of has thankfully not been repeated, perhaps because of its ongoing intervention which was a major topic throughout the political Thesis on terrorism in africa.
Established institutions condition the conduct of their leaders and those who work within their structures. New institutions, however, are conditioned by the personalities and characteristics of their first leaders and staffs, as they lack existing institutional controls and cultures.
Since its inception in Julythe OTP has faced two primary critiques: But it is unclear what standard should be used as the ICC is a sui generis institution that had to be built from the ground up within the context of ongoing conflicts that demanded immediate attention.
While it shares some similarities to the practices and procedures of national judicial institutions, it is also forging a new path based on the adoption and incorporation of practices and staff representing divergent legal philosophies, traditions and practices.
Nevertheless, there are some relatively objective characteristics and factors that are applicable to the evaluation of the court and its prosecutor, the person upon whom the enormous responsibility was bestowed to establish and run its investigatory and prosecutorial arm.
Further, all of this had to be done within the context of UN standards of diversity and national quotas, which often led to a modern day tower of babel as lawyers attempted to meld together divergent and sometimes mutually exclusive policies and practices.
For Moreno-Ocampo this task was particularly challenging, as his experience was limited to an eight-year period as an assistant prosecutor in Argentina and then domestic defense Thesis on terrorism in africa, he had no international legal experience, he was largely unfamiliar with investigations and case management, and he had never before run a large office.
He was also accused by critics of bias in selectively targeting African cases and failing to pay sufficient attention to conflicts in the rest of the world. The challenges posed by the creation of the OTP were mirrored throughout the Court, as each organ had to come up with its own internal procedures and practices and then forge working arrangements with each other.
External pressures came from major political powers that exerted influence over the ICCas well as NGO s who wanted action and academics who critically examined each step the court took.
In essence, the ICC had to balance numerous, often divergent, interests, while simultaneously satisfying its supporters and maintaining its public support. This required bringing cases to trial as quickly as possible in order to be seen to be doing something and satisfying its mandate.
It was not clear in how the court would function precisely because of the multitude of challenges it faced. What the ICC will become and how it will operate is still a matter of some speculation, although these unresolved questions are increasingly coming into focus.
It is clear, however, that the ICC is an institution with the capacity to change habits and outcomes.
Indeed, few institutions have had as many resources at their disposal as the ICC. The next question then is what the Court, and in particular the OTPhas accomplished. During its ten year existence, the OTP has announced the existence of preliminary examinations into 18 conflicts, 8 eight of which resulted in formal investigations, 9 seven in various types of pre-trial preliminary examination, 10 and three in the declination of further investigation.
While there is no clear metric for measuring the efficiency of the ICC and the OTPthe most readily apparent one is expenditure per indictee.
Since issuing its first indictments in Julythe OTP has initiated proceedings against 30 individuals. If these numbers are the standard for the future, and these the likely costs of ICC prosecutions, it is hard to think that the Court will continue to justify itself in the eyes of the ASP.
More needs to be done in the future to improve efficiency and show that the Court is sustainable. Beyond the general efficiency of the OTPcritics have also questioned its apparent focus on Africa and its failure to address obvious violations committed by other states across the globe.
As indicated above, all eight investigations currently under investigation by the OTP are in Africa. This has rankled African leaders, some of whom have complained that the continent is being singled out and that the OTP is applying a discriminatory 17 double standard.
Are there no worst [ sic ] countries, like Myanmar? Instead, the court acts as a vehicle for its primarily European funders, of which the UK is one of the largest, to exert their power and influence, particularly in Africa.
One example is the refusal of most African states to detain and surrender al-Bashir to the Court. Two situations—Libya and the Sudan—were the result of Security Council referrals and were not discretionary. But these last two cases require some further clarification.
It was thus more in the nature of a state referral than a straight exercise of prosecutorial discretion, as it was clearly the intent of Ouattara to have his opponent investigated in order to strengthen his own position.
It thus reflects in a convoluted way a self-referral by Kenya because the parties could not agree to the domestic alternatives that they had consented to in the aftermath of electoral violence innamely the inquiry by Annan and the report of the Waki Commission.
It is worth noting that, of the eight cases currently under investigation, only Libya has challenged the jurisdiction of the court. Within this context, one might rightly ask whether unaffected African states and their leaders have any greater purchase to criticize the ICC or its conduct than any other state or individual.
Notwithstanding the lack of domestic action by the states under investigation, it is worth pausing to ask whether these states should deal with these issues themselves rather than allowing the ICC to assume jurisdiction.The thesis must be submitted in English (either written in English or translated into English) and should be sent to the chair of the judges panel in electronic form as a PDF.
The PhD thesis must focus on terrorism/counterterrorism or closely related forms of political violence and armed conflict. Terrorism as a manifestation of conflict could be a historically persistent phenomena with roots in the past. This chapter examines the causes and consequences of terrorism in Africa, and considers the extent to which existing evidence rationalizes the various explanations for it, and its implications for counterterrorism policy in Africa.
2 In this article, „East Africa‟ or the Horn of Africa (HOA) is understood to be a region encompassing the countries which are members of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), i.e.
Djibouti, Eritrea (despite Eritrea‟s withdrawal from IGAD in ), Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION Aksoy, Ece MIR, Department of International Relations Supervisor: Dr.
Paul Williams October This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. In Libya, as in most of the Middle East and North Africa, the modern concept of the territorially discreet nation is a recent development.
Anti-terrorism legislation are laws with the purpose of fighting rutadeltambor.com usually, if not always, follow specific bombings or assassinations.
Anti-terrorism legislation usually includes specific amendments allowing the state to bypass its own legislation when fighting terrorism-related crimes, under the grounds of necessity..
Because of this, suspension of regular procedure, such.