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Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding.
In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems.
In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays HMDshaptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities.
Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.
Introduction One of the major goals of rehabilitation is to make quan- titative and qualitative improvements in daily activities in order to improve the quality of independent living.
Three determinants of motor recovery are early intervention, task-oriented training, and repetition intensity  while a major objective of rehabilitation is to identify the means to provide repeated opportunities for tasks that involve multimodal processes different sensory modalities including vision, haptics, proprioception, audition and that further enable increases in function.
Carr and Shep- herd  focus on motor relearning where relearned move- ments are structured to be task specific. They suggest that the practice of specific motor skills leads to the ability to perform the task and that motor tasks should be practiced in the appropriate environments where sensory inputs modulate their performance.
The functional relevance of the specific environmental context has been specifically addressed by Keshner and colleagues  as it relates to posture control. These authors have shown that specific postural responses differ between paradigms where iso- lated individual control pathways are manipulated i.
The successful integration of virtual reality into multiple aspects of medicine, psychology, and rehabilitation has demonstrated the potential for the technology to present opportunities to engage in behaviors in challenging but safe, ecologically valid environments while maintaining experimental control over stimulus delivery and measure- Published: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation1: Moreover, in VR, the user patient, therapist interacts with a multidimensional, multisensory computer generated environment, a virtual environment, which can be explored in real time .
Vir- tual reality also offers the capacity to individualize treat- ment needs while providing increased standardization of assessment and training protocols. In fact, preliminary evidence  indicates that VR provides a unique medium where therapy can be provided within a func- tional, purposeful and motivating context and can be readily graded and documented.
Several features distinguish virtual environments from other forms of visual imaging such as video and televi- sion. A key feature of all VR applications is interaction. Virtual environments VE are created that allow the user to interact with not only the VE but also with virtual objects within the environment.
In some systems, the interaction may be achieved via a pointer operated by a mouse or joystick button.The study will also evaluate 1) which patients received consultation by the Rehabilitation Service during the initial acute care admission, 2) admission and discharge Functional Independence Measures (FIM) scores, 3) length of stay at acute care, 4) date and time of admission to IRF, 5).
In summary, human-centered rehabilitation robotics has a high potential for making future gait therapy easier, more comfortable, and more efficient. However, broad clinical testing is still required to prove these assumptions.
Post-Stroke Rehabilitation with the Rutgers Ankle System: A Case Study Abstract The “Rutgers Ankle” is a Stewart platform-type haptic interface designed for use in the system for rehabilitation of a post-stroke patient.
Section 4 concludes the paper.
2 Experimental System. Robots can be considered as reprogrammable devices which can be used to complete certain tasks in an autonomous manner. While robots have long been used for automation of industrial processes, there. rehabilitation, post-stroke rehabilitation, and based on the study of ankle injuries, and ankle functional anatomy, which is represented in an orientation image space.
A particular area The Rutgers Ankle haptic interface (Girone et al. ). The stiffness analysis and mechanism.
2 Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center, Old Dominion University, Virginia USA tracking is used to actively monitor a patient's posture during a training session and prompt .
initiate the early termination, a call will be made for.