Charles Fourierinfluential early French socialist thinker Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. It has been claimed—though controversially—that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato  and Aristotle. Christian socialism was one of the founding threads of the UK Labour Party and is said to be a tradition going back years to the uprising of Wat Tyler and John Ball .
History of technology Productivity improving technologies date back to antiquity, with rather slow progress until the late Middle Ages. Important examples of early to medieval European technology include the water wheelthe horse collarthe spinning wheel, the three-field system after the four-field system—see Crop rotation and the blast furnace.
The spinning wheel increased the supply of rags used for pulp in paper making, whose technology reached Sicily sometime in the 12th century.
Cheap paper was a factor in the development of the movable type printing presswhich led to a large increase in the number of books and titles published. Bacon stated that the technologies that distinguished Europe of his day from the Middle Ages were paper and printing, gunpowder and the magnetic compass, known as the four great inventions.
The four great inventions important to the development of Europe were of Chinese origin. See also List of Chinese inventions. Mining and metal refining technologies played a key role in technological progress.
Much of our understanding of fundamental chemistry evolved from ore smelting and refining, with De Re Metallica being the leading chemistry text for years. The significance of the blast furnace goes far beyond its capacity for large scale production of cast iron.
The blast furnace was the first example of continuous production and is a countercurrent exchange process, various types of which are also used today in chemical and petroleum refining.
It had the immediate effect of dramatically reducing the energy required to produce pig iron, but reuse of heat was eventually applied to a variety of industries, particularly steam boilers, chemicals, petroleum refining and pulp and paper.
Before the 17th century scientific knowledge tended to stay within the intellectual community, but by this time it became accessible to the public in what is called "open science".
It contained many articles on science and was the first general encyclopedia to provide in depth coverage on the mechanical arts, but is far more recognized for its presentation of thoughts of the Enlightenment. Economic historians generally agree that, with certain exceptions such as the steam enginethere is no strong linkage between the 17th century scientific revolution Descartes, Newton, etc.
Scotland was the first place where science was taught in the 18th century and was where Joseph Black discovered heat capacity and latent heat and where his friend James Watt used knowledge of heat to conceive the separate condenser as a means to improve the efficiency of the steam engine.
High productivity growth began during the late 19th century in what is sometimes call the Second Industrial Revolution.
Most major innovations of the Second Industrial Revolution were based on the modern scientific understanding of chemistryelectromagnetic theory and thermodynamics and other principles known to profession of engineering. Major sources of productivity growth in economic history[ edit ] s photograph of barge pullers on the Volga River.
Pushing was done with poles and manual pulling using overhanging tree branches. New forms of energy and power[ edit ] Before the industrial revolution the only sources of power were water, wind and muscle.
Most good water power sites those not requiring massive modern dams in Europe were developed during the medieval period. In the s John Smeatonthe "father of civil engineering," significantly improved the efficiency of the water wheel by applying scientific principles, thereby adding badly needed power for the Industrial Revolution.
Hydro-power continued to be the leading source of industrial power in the United States until past the mid 19th century because of abundant sites, but steam power overtook water power in the UK decades earlier. Fossil fuel energy first exceeded all animal and water power in The role energy and machines replacing physical work is discussed in Ayres-Warr Until the late 19th century most coal and other minerals were mined with picks and shovels and crops were harvested and grain threshed using animal power or by hand.
Heavy loads like pound bales of cotton were handled on hand trucks until the early 20th century.The Economic History of Mexico. The Economic History of Mexico.
Richard Salvucci, Trinity University Preface. This article is a brief interpretive survey of some of the major features of the economic history of Mexico from pre-conquest to the present.
Learning Objectives. This is an intermediate-level course intended to provide mental health professionals with a variety of evidence-based methods for addressing school adjustment issues. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
Institut of Social Threefolding - Fair Trade - In or Against the Market? This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved..
Productivity in general is a ratio of output to input in the production of goods and services. Box and Cox () developed the transformation.
Estimation of any Box-Cox parameters is by maximum likelihood. Box and Cox () offered an example in which the data had the form of survival times but the underlying biological structure was of hazard rates, and the transformation identified this.