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Rouget has attempted to bring some clarity by defining trance and ecstasy very precisely and almost in opposition to each other. Although there are aspects of his definition that are useful and accurate, it can be limiting to use such rigid definitions.
To be able to use these terms within the context of music and emotional expression it may be more appropriate to allow for a certain amount of fluidity and flexibility in these definitions.
Ecstasy and trance in musical performance Trance has been used predominantly within the context of spirit possession. Most traditional societies use music and dance to induce a state of trance within a religious context for healing, or as part of a community ritual.
Many traditional communities across the world have unique forms of trance-inducing music performance. The instruments and style can vary from loud drumming and repetitive chanting to quite meditative flute or string sounds.
Induction of trance consciousness is believed to enable communication and union with God, gods, deities or spirits.
In Bali, for instance, where trance is a common event as part of established religious practice, a particular type of meditative gamelan music accompanies this ritual. The dancer, who enters into a state of trance, is believed to be possessed by a deity or demon. This has been explained in the following way: The audience expresses its appreciation of the performance with vocal encouragement; the trance dancer is oblivious to the crowd, but still has enough presence of mind to reach into the fire dust pot and hurl dust into the air as part of the ritual.
Drumming and singing are believed to transform the spirit from a possessing spirit to a source of energy. Within the Middle East we can find religious dhikr Sufi rituals that use music as part of their ceremonies. The dhirk Sufi ritual is practiced in dervish brotherhoods from India to Morocco.
Ecstasy is often used in the context of a Sama Sufi ceremony of the Mevlevi Order, to describe the state of consciousness in which the practitioner experiences the union with Allah while listening to music. The Dervishes remain fully conscious both during and after the ceremony.
The main difference between the use of the words trance and ecstasy seems to be that in a state of ecstasy, the subject has got the ability to concentrate intensely, being in full control of himself, expanding his state of consciousness, whereas the trance dancer loses control and memory, during the ritual.
However, in contrast to his definition of ecstasy as being achieved in solitude, silence and stillness, music and movement are important aspects of the Samma ceremony in achieving ecstasy for the Whirling Dervishes. Thus, in order to be able to analyze ecstasy and trance in relation to Tarab Performance, I am going to use the term ecstasy to describe a concentrated state of consciousness, which is achieved while in full control, at the same time as letting go of the identity with oneself.
Analysis of ecstasy and trance in Tarab music performance To gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between Tarab, trance and ecstasy, I am going to first of all look at the historic context from which Tarab performance has developed, and then look at the use of the terms ecstasy and trance in relation to Tarab performance.
Tarab performance has developed from a cultural context that has given great importance to music. Throughout the history of the Middle East, music has been associated with extraordinary powers that are believed to transform the audience and musician on a spiritual level.
The audience may call out phrases that have become part of the Tarab performance ritual to encourage the musician in their performance.
The musicians, in turn, are moved and encouraged by the responses from the audience. In a saltanah state, the musician becomes self-absorbed, focusing intensely on the music during the performance.
Saltanah is part of the overall Tarab experience: Saltanah is a state in which the artist experiences heightened mental and emotional creativity though fully conscious. The term Tarab has also been used in other parts of the Middle East in relation to musical performance.
This example of violent behaviour of the musicians in Iraq is more likely to have occurred in a state of trance. Such an act of distracted behaviour may indicate that the drummers lost self-control and experienced a state of unconsciousness similar to that described in the examples of trance in spirit possession rituals or within a Dhirk ceremony.
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We therefore need to look at the historic and cultural setting of a Tarab performance to be able to define its relationship to trance and ecstasy. The emotional intensity and overall experience of Tarab performance has changed over time, and may be less pronounced in modern day Egypt than it was during the Ottoman Empire, before the influence of the western industrial revolution introducing modern technology, large orchestras and concert halls.Free list of easy, interestinf, custom written essay topics.
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[Translate] Ecstasy and Trance in Tarab Performance Maren Lueg Department of Music Course: Performance Theory December MMusic Performance, SOAS Ecstasy and Trance in Tarab Performance Ecstasy and trance have a significant relevance with regard to the description of the [ ].
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