This admitted, we may propose to execute, by means of machinery, the mechanical branch of these labours, reserving for pure intellect that which depends on the reasoning faculties. Thus the rigid exactness of those laws which regulate numerical calculations must frequently have suggested the employment of material instruments, either for executing the whole of such calculations or for abridging them; and thence have arisen several inventions having this object in view, but which have in general but partially attained it.
In a recent hockey game between the Calgary Flames and the Edmonton Oilers—the so-called Battle of Alberta—the twenty-one year-old millionaire and Alberta native Mike Comrie appeared to be hit with a high stick by the twenty-three year-old millionaire and Alberta native Derek Morris, thus giving the Oilers a two-minute powerplay.
But the replay showed that Comrie had in fact faked being hit. Upon seeing this excellent deception, the venerable Canadian sportscaster Jim Hughson congratulated Comrie for being wise beyond his years.
In other words, Hughson had, in no uncertain terms, splained to the children that, in Canada, wisdom and lying are the very same thing. In his essay The Power of the Powerless Havel asserts that people can bring down a dictatorial government nonviolently by simply living in truth.
John Maynard Keynes was a British economist whose ideas continue to profoundly influence government policy to this day.
Keynes amassed a personal fortune during the s by speculating on the fluctuations of currency exchange rates. He addressed the problem of boom-bust cycles that constantly plague capitalism by arguing that government should increase or decrease spending in accordance with cyclical fluctuations.
Whatever Keynes is most noted for the prophecy made in as he looked beyond the foreboding presence of the looming Great Depression—When the accumulation of wealth is no longer of high social importance, there will be great changes in the code of morals.
We shall be able to rid ourselves of many of the pseudo-moral principles which have hag-ridden us for two hundred years, by which we have exalted some of the most distasteful human qualities into the position of the highest virtues.
The love of money as a possession—as distinguished from the love of money as a means to the enjoyments and realities of life—will be recognized for what it is, Essay analysis bernoulli somewhat disgusting morbidity, one of those semi-criminal, Essay analysis bernoulli propensities which one hands over with a shudder to the specialists in mental disease.
The time for all this is not yet. For at least another hundred years we must pretend to ourselves and to everyone that fair is foul and foul is fair—for foul is useful and fair is not. Avarice, usury and precaution must be our gods for a little longer still.
For only they can lead us out of the tunnel of economic necessity into daylight. Playing the Dad Card Einstein once said that God had punished him for his contempt of authority by making him an authority himself. During the s the American psychologist Stanley Milgram performed a remarkable experiment for testing the obedience to authority of one thousand subjects.
An authoritian figure ordered each of the subjects to administer increasingly painful electrical shocks to a learner every time the learner either failed to answer or answered a question incorrectly. The learner, who could be heard and not seen was, in fact, not actually given the shocks.
The punishment began at 15 volts and increased in volt increments to volts. In spite of the fact that the learner would scream in pain, beg for mercy, and finally fall silent at volts—a full two-thirds of the subjects delivered the final punishment of volts.
Romancing the Moon Wittgenstein once said that philosophy is the battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by the means of our language. Just as numbers are a useful fiction leading toward eternal verities in mathematics—so too are words the-finger-pointing-at-the-moon when endeavoring to understand ultimate philosophical truths.
But the question is—At what point does the authority of government cease to guide us forward and, instead, choose itself over the people? Existentialism is the philosophy which asserts that morality must be determined inwardly rather than from external authority.
Consider that the Freudian cognitive model makes the reality-based ego the decisionmaker who must choose between the internal values of the inward self or soul and the external authority of the superego. Gandhi used to speak disparagingly about systems so perfect that no one would have to be good.
But the goal is not to make goodness obsolete—but to create systems which align internal and external values. The Authoritian Model Einstein once said that there is no more commonplace statement to make than the world in which we live is a four-dimensional spacetime continuum.
Consider for a moment that both morality and risk management are similarly exercises in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. From this it follows that we can only know whether decisions are correct or not retrospectively. But the very definition of authority is that it is able to make determinations of right and wrong at any time.
And the authoritian strategy is dead simple—bully the ego into making the easy, low-risk, low-reward, short-term decision of obeying authoritarian rules—rather than allowing the ego time to reflect on the values of the soul and possibly make the higher-risk and ontologically higher-reward decision.
In essence, the authoritarian model forces us to remain in the three-dimensional world because it can neither feed off us nor control us in the four-dimensional world.
The Markowitz Model Harry Markowitz developed portfolio theory in as a way of constructing optimal portfolios that maximize reward for given levels of risk. Markowitz forever linked reward with risk in exactly the same way that Einstein linked space with time in that both the expected outcome and the attendant uncertainty of outcome are required to complete the picture.
His approach employs matrix algebra to aggregate risk, and then uses linear programming to determine optimally efficient portfolio allocations.
Just as Galileo and Descartes laid down the fundamentals of the modern scientific method for solving problems—so too did Markowitz lay down the fundamentals of the modern scientific method of four-dimensionally bringing together a varied set of uncertain elements.
But rather than seeing portfolio theory for the profoundly important roadmap that it is—the individual components of the model have been incessantly and pedantically attacked by PhDs and other authorities—like the legions of PhDs at Enron before the company finally collapsed under the weight of its own PhDness.
The Bernoulli Model Newton once said that if he had seen further than others, it was because he stood on the shoulders of giants. In both Newton and Leibnitz formulated versions of calculus—that is, the mathematics of motion. The Bernoulli brothers, John and James, picked up on calculus, spread it through much of Europe, and then set the roadmap for efficiency analysis by finding the curve for which a bead could be slide down in the shortest time.
It is singularly directed towards establishing balance and efficiency for institutions and individuals within institutions.Bernoulli, Daniel (February 8, - March 17, ) is the most distinguished of the second generation of the Bernoulli family of Swiss mathematicians.
He was a Swiss physicist and mathematician who made important discoveries in hydrodynamics. He was the only member of his family to make a mark. Decision analysis is based on the UTILITY of outcomes rather than expected values.
A utility function assigns to every possible outcome a finite utlity, with or without a monetary equivalent. Stephen Wolfram shares what he learned in researching Ada Lovelace's life, writings about the Analytical Engine, and computation of Bernoulli numbers.
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