Early life[ edit ] Alexander II as a boy. His early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential; until the time of his accession inaged 37, few[ quantify ] imagined that posterity would know him for implementing the most challenging reforms undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great.
A minority of the cardinals, however, elected the cardinal priest Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV and became the German Emperor's antipope.
The situation was critical for Alexander III, because according to many chronicles of the time perhaps exaggeratingBarbarossa's antipope received the approval of most of the kingdoms of Europe, with the exception of the kingdoms of Portugal, Sicily and Spain.
Because of imperial strength in Italy, Alexander was forced to reside outside of Rome for a large part of his pontificate. Alexander III was the first pope known to have paid direct attention to missionary activities east of the Baltic Sea.
He had created the Archbishopric of Uppsala in Sweden in probably at the suggestion of his close friend EskilArchbishop of Lund - exiled in ClairvauxFrance, due to a conflict with the Danish king. The latter appointed a Benedictine monk Fulco as a bishop in Estonia. InAlexander became the first pope to address the situation of the Church in Finlandwith Finns allegedly harassing priests and only relying on God in time of war.
In doing so, he legitimized the widespread use of forced conversion as a tactic by those fighting in the Baltic. Through the Papal bull Manifestis Probatumissued on 23 Mayhe also recognized the right of Afonso I to proclaim himself King of Portugal — an important step in the process of Portugal becoming a recognized independent Kingdom Afonso had been using the title of King since Its acts embodied several of the Pope's proposals for the betterment of the condition of the Church, among them the law requiring that no one could be elected pope without the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals.
This synod marked the summit of Alexander III's power.
By the judicious use of money, however, Alexander III got him into his power, so that he was deposed in January Alexander II: Alexander II, emperor of Russia (–81). His liberal education and distress at the outcome of the Crimean War, which had demonstrated Russia’s backwardness, inspired him toward a great program of domestic reforms, the most important being the emancipation () of the serfs.
Alexander II vs Alexander III Economic Changes Alexander III: Reduced the Tax burden on peasants. Established the Peasant Land Bank, which offered loans to Peasants to help increase their land size. Offered financial incentives for peasants to migrate to Siberia to farm.
Abhishek Puri History- HL 20/08/ Compare and Contrast the policies of Alexander II and Alexander III Tsar's Alexander II and his son, Alexander III had different an entirely different ideology when it came to the question of reform.3/5.
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Apr 10, · As Level History - Russia: Communism and Democracy Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III () Sorry for the lack of audio so far, I . Alexander III: Alexander III, pope from to , a vigorous exponent of papal authority, which he defended against challenges by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Henry II of England.
After studies in theology and law, Bandinelli became professor of law at Bologna and emerged as an important.